Music as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte


The music is off course the most central of all disciplines in Commedia dell’Arte. It is there to heighten the performance and it helps up the atmosphere of feast that is so characteristic in Commedia dell’Arte.

I the very first descriptions of Commedia dell’Arte shows one could read about the use of music. It had several madrigals for four or even five voices. Many of the first operas were based on Commedia dell’Arte as well, with the use of mask, plots and crude lazzi.
We usually start with an opening song that gives a sort of atmosphere of fest and joy. It also presents the masks, the plot and gives a feeling for the sort of play that will happen. The music also involves the audience physically; they are clapping hands or sing along. The music in itself gives a feeling of involvement.
In the rest of the show the music is used in songs where the masks get the chance to express their feelings or point of views, or in choirs or antiphons that helps moving the plot forward. We also use the music instrumentally as mod music, background music or sound effects. In all these ways to use the music it is describing and clarifies or emphasize what is happening on stage. The show ends in a song that sums up the plot and returns the mood to the initial atmosphere of a fest.


See also:
Disciplines in Commedia dell’Arte
Acrobatics as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte
Mime as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte

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Disciplines in Commedia dell’Arte


Commedia dell’Arte is sprung from a time long before circus and theatre were divided as separate genres, when all sorts of stage disciplines could be played on the same stage without one having to be better or more refined than the other. Therefore all sorts of disciplines were incorporated in a Commedia dell’Arte performance, like dance, acrobatics, music, fencing, stilts, juggling etc.

They are either user to move the action forward or to highlight the show. Just like the singing and dancing in a musical. There is a danger to use different kind of disciplines as stop in the show just to show off.


The same rules apply for most disciplines. They come into the performance as a part of it either they are there to amplify, aestheticize, tell the story, stylize a scene, create an atmosphere, crack a joke or just is there for its own sake. This goes for tight rope dancers, fire artists, animal trainer, yoyo artists… all disciplines that can be used in Commedia dell’Arte.

Here you can read about few of the disciplines:
Music as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte
Acrobatics as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte
Mime as a discipline in Commedia dell’Arte

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Improvisation in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 3)


Much of the art in playing Commedia dell’Arte has to do with being constantly on the alert, always ready to jump in to the action or leave space for another mask. This does not just apply when we are on stage. We must all the time be ready if we are needed on stage for a sudden introduced lazzo. We have fist and most the happy circumstance that unexpected things on stage happen. Every time we play, especially outdoors, we have to count on that something “goes wrong”. It may be scenography that falls, dogs that barks, actors does make mistakes, skinheads entering the stage, masks that fall of and so on. This is the actor’s gifts from God.
If the actor only is ready and skillful enough to use the situation it might very well be what lifts a mediocre, tiring performance. It may wake actors who until then have played a well-rehearsed without being ready to take any risks. The obstacles can naturally not be insurmountable.TS60

Another important aspect is that is more or less impossible for a mask to improvise with more than one mask at the same time, since the masks also constantly are improvising with the audience. To keep contact with more the two at the same time, knowing where they are on stage, seeing their reactions, giving them reactions, using a very narrow field of view through the mask is too great of a task.
Therefore there are seldom many masks on stage at the same time, except in opening and closing scenes off course, in Commedia dell’Arte. That doesn’t mean that we are not working as a group the whole time. It is important to work from a group feeling either we are on stage or not. Not just because of the atmosphere we create around us but also for the actor’s feeling of security.
Since it is not always only two masks on stage we have to develop strategies in order to improvise with only one mask or “unit of masks” on stage and create “binary relations”. See more HERE.

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Improvisation in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 2)


When I work with Commedia dell’Arte I don’t let improvisation be the most important, even though it still is important. I do this for three reasons; Commedia dell’Arte is played from a plot, even though it is of less importance when it comes to why we play; there are very few actors with that tremendous improvisation skills; the fixed elements – the acrobatics, the music, battute, concetti, all forms of disciplines, lazzi – is what I find most interesting in Commedia dell’Arte.
One more thing that makes Commedia dell’Arte is rhythm. We can look at Commedia dell’Arte as a musical representation. Every scene in a performance, every mask all the way down to every gesture or line is sat within a rhythm. It is important to let the audience breath with the performance. This rhythm is what builds up the show to a musical performance. There are rhythm, crescendos and pauses in breathing; therefore it is vital that the actor first listen to the rhythm of the performance before he starts to improvise.
I always start up by creating highly firm scenery, most of the time we are even working from a written script. This gives the actor the security he needs to be able to come back to the rhythm at any time in the play. The actor also learns when not to improvise. The more the actor has to fall back on the more free he can be in his improvisations, without risking to ruin the rhythm of the performance.Callot04
It is when we are getting closer to the opening of a play, having all the firmly fixed sceneries in the actor’s backbone, that we start to fly, in other words we let the improvisations free. This is where we start to use test audiences in order to be sure the play is constantly aimed to it, listening to it and improvising to it by reacting to it. We also start to put “monkey spanners in the works” in order to force the actors to start improvising so the acting won’t get too static

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Improvisation in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 1)


How much in a Commedia dell’Arte show during the renaissance that was improvised is something we will never know. What we know is that a lot was written down: lazzi, burle, some monologues and dialogs, battute, concetti and we can also read from some actors own notes. Commedia dell’Arte is also built on various disciplines such as music, dance, acrobatics, fencing and different circus skills that are impossible to improvise. But they never used ready scripts.

It is easy to understand, in our text based theatre world, that is the lack of scripts that have fed the myth about Commedia dell’Arte as a throughout improvised theatre form. Many scholars have speculated in how the eccentric idea come up to start improvising or playing theatre without having a text as base, as if theatre wasn’t born long before it was written down. (See HERE) Let us here and now determine that it is not a text that makes theatre and that it is not the absence of a text that creates improvisations. Or to recite Flaminio Scala from the prologue to Il finto marito, from 1619:

For this reason, then, oration, or even locution, and words alone, have little to do with imitation, because even the smallest gesture at the right moment, and made with feeling, can achieve a greater effect than all the philosophy of Aristotle or the rhetoric or Demosthenes and Cicero.TS23

What we can be sure of is that it gave the notion that it was improvised, as all good theatre. That is something most theatre thinkers at the time agreed on, but then they were practitioners as well. Cecchini in his book from 1628 talks much about timing and coordination in building a play for example.
The theory about how much was improvised is that the actors composed already rehearsed and prepared parts in a play with in the frame of the scenario. It was made in a way so that the actor had the freedom to alter the parts he used in a play. We can also hold in mind that Cecchini and Perrucci both talked about how the improvising actor must have a good memory.
Plots, tricks and characters from literary and oral traditions were often stolen and put into different scenarios. Since originality was not the most important attribute for an artist to steal from other authors or groups was not looked upon as something particularly bad. Copyright was not invented yet. It could even be seen as an achievement to, in a refined way, steal and incorporate something already written or played.
It is not relevant for us here today to know how much was improvised to understand how to play Commedia dell’Arte today. We must find our own way in to the work or to quote Tim Fitzpatrik “actors – trained for their task – playing with a limited preparation”.

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2014 – Sexfiaskon och en stol (sex/six-failures and a chair)


This was a fall production from the second year students at Kulturama’s physical theatre program in the fall of 2014. The show played in Stockholm with three shows.

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Sexfiaskon och en stol (Sex/six-failures and a chair)


Text and directing – Micke Klingvall

Zanni – Yosefin Bouhler
Pantalone – Per Mollan
Flavio – Mårten Gunnarsson
Flavia – Malin Andersson
Capitano – Axel Boberg
Signora – Manuela Bjelke

Click here to see a trailer of Sexfiaskon och en Stol.

This was a fall show for the second year class of physical theatre 2014/15 at Kulturama in Stockholm. It opened at Kulturama in Stockholm 16/12-2014 and played three shows.


The show is a classic Commedia dell’Arte, with of lots of play, lots of audience participation and some acrobatics. It was the first production for the students. We focused much on finding the play with the masks and the Commedia dell’Arte attitude.
The plot is based on the Signora who seeks seduce Flavio just as Flavia enters and misunderstands the situation. Then Capitano enters also wanting Signora, but gets caught by Pantalone who is looking for Signora who has been buying to much clothes. And so on…


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Commercialism in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 2)


The classical way is to wait until the hat is full before the show starts. The advantage with this way is that once “the hat is full” the actors don’t have to think about it and can concentrate on the show itself. The flip side is that not many people nowadays are ready to give money for a show they have not seen and they might not even have the time to stay to see the show.
The most usual way is to ask for money after the show is over. Hopefully the show has gathered a great crowd. Now people are happy and are willing to give some money for the show. Unfortunately it seldom works that way. Usually most part of the audience sense that it’s time to be asked for money and they leave the show in the middle of the final song while the actors are looked up on stage. So if we want to pass the hat at the end of the show we better promise something extra at the end of the show, maybe even after the final song. Another way is to go out in the audience just before the final song or even the final itself. It may be suddenly in the middle of the show spontaneous or not. Or as a part of the show, for example: “We must have enough money to make the marriage possible (Here is a chance for having another ending depending on how much money it brings). The best way, at least is it what I think, is to pass the hat in the middle of the show. We can’t trust that it is always possible. The actors that are not on stage at the moment can be doing the sound effects, have to be ready to jump onto the stage etc. Another problem that may occur is that an actor who is out in the audience may not be able to come back in time for his or her entrance. We never know what will happen out there in the audience, an old lady may be looking forever in her handbag for her purse; someone starts a discussion with a mask and so on.
One way it to give the audience some kind of reward, like letting someone up on stage or just give the person applause.  This work perfectly in Italy where people seems to love to be in center of attraction, but in Sweden it seems to be the other way around. People are very shy.KK38One of the great things with street theatre is that it is free. We shall not forget that. We can never force or demand payment from anyone, doesn’t matter how hungry we are. I guess we all have seen a street artists that more or less demand money saying something like: -“This is my job!”.  As if that was the audience’s problem.

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Commercialism in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 1)


Commedia dell’Arte is commercial by nature. One of the earliest names on Commedia dell’Arte was Commedia Merceraria (One of the many early names it has). The troupes played it in order to make money as any profession would. Commedia dell’Arte was born long before the romantic era with its idea about “the artist” as someone who don’t need prosaic things like respect, food or money as long as he could practice his art. This hypocritical view on the artist is still more or less reign.
So please let us see Commedia dell’Arte for what it is: a very practical art form with actors that not only want to survive, but also live well.

In practice this means that we have to use the idea, especially when playing in the street. If we want to earn any money at all we have to take that in consideration already when we prepare a show. It is not enough to just put a hat or a box in front of the stage for people to give money in. We must also find ways to remind the audience of the hat. It is not of greediness people don’t give. They might forget about it, they are sometimes too involved in the show itself or they are too shy to get up in front of the audience to give their contribution.
If the show is not bought by a festival or similar we will have to go “hat in hand”. That raises lots of questions: When in the show is it most effective? Can we make it to an integrated part of the show? Should it be done after the show, or even before? Is it possible for an actor or a mask to walk around in the audience during the show? Can that be part of the show?TS08

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Mask technique in Commedia dell’Arte in Commedia dell’Arte (Part 2)


A dialog works as follows: the first mask to speak first turns to the mask he speaks to, in order to show him and the audience who he is talking to. The he turns his mask to the audience and acts and says what he has to say. The other mask looks at the mask that speaks so the audience understands that he is listening. When the fist mask is ready he turns back to the second mask to give him the focus. The second mask turns out to the audience to answer or react to what is said.
This technique is not only used for dialogs it has to be used for every reaction the masks have. If the for example find something on the floor it first see is turns out the mask to give the audience its reaction. If he chooses to pick it up or choose not to, he must show the audience his decision and the reason for it. It is these small reactions that build the plot in Commedia dell’Arte, since we can’t follow the face of the actor and since we see the bodies of the actors through the masks. See HERE
This “takes” (the turn of the head out to the audience) or “body takes” (a bigger turn using the whole body) are the mask’s windows to the audience. It is here the audience can follow the inner life of the mask. It uses the takes when it speaks, reacts, change state of emotions even when it speaks direct to the audience. In this way the mask technique reminds of puppet theatre or the way cartoons are drawn.

But the masks are not puppets or cartons. They are flesh and blood. It is therefore extremely important that the actor behind the mask really sees and communicates with the audience he or she is reacting to.
If the actor is too fast to see or chooses not to see the audience, the audience will not see the mask and its intentions. The content of the show and the mask’s/actor’s loses its value and he becomes as dead as the puppet in puppet theatre. Both the mask and the puppet are just pieces of dead matter until and actor fills it with life.Kult87

Commedia dell’Arte is a kind of theatre with no idea about a 4:th wall and it is constantly in contact with its audience. The most important focus for the actor is always the audience. If the mask loses the contact with the audience it dies or playing something else than Commedia dell’Arte.
Obviously the actors have to be in contact with its colleagues on stage, but that contact is secondary to the contact with the audience. Every mask uses all the time the other masks as their sounding board in its dialog with the audience.

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